Complete Guide for Gemstones



Birthstone Jewellery :  


January Birthstone: Garnet Jewellery 

February Birthstone: Amethyst Jewellery 

March Birthstone: Aquamarine Jewellery 

April Birthstone: Diamond or Cubic Zirconia Jewellery 

May Birthstone: Emerald Jewellery 

June Birthstone:  Pearl Jewellery , Alexandrite and Moonstone

July Birthstone: Ruby Jewellery 

August Birthstone: Peridot Jewellery 

September Birthstone: Sapphire Jewellery 

October Birthstone: Opal Jewellery 

November Birthstone: Topaz Jewellery 

December Birthstone: Zircon, Tanzanite Jewellery  and Turquoise Jewelry 




Agate

Agate is a microcrystalline Quartz that is banded and is finely-grained. The stone comes with a majestic banding and has beautiful color patterns. All of this makes this exquisite gemstone exceptionally unique. You can find agate in a multitude of patterns and styles. However, every agate is unique in its form. It wouldn’t be wrong to say that you won’t ever find two Agates that look the same.

Features of Agate

  • It is mostly banded (except moss agate and dendritic agate that are not banded). 
  • They have more than one color. 
  • It is usually inexpensive and affordable. 

Uses of Agate

  • Since, agate is inexpensive, it is widely used in jewelry. 
  • When it is polished and cut neatly into cabochons, it is used as bracelets and necklaces. 
  • When carved into cameos, it can be worn as pendants. 
  • Agate is a magnificent ornamental stone and can be cut into ornate book ends, animal carvings, slabs, figures, and small statues.  
  • Ornaments can be made out of agate, such as snuff boxes, knife handles, pins, etc. 

 


Agate Treatments

Agate is usually colored, but the sellers usually dye them. This happens primarily for the agate that tends to have more intense neon colors, such as green, blue, pink, etc.

Sources of Agate

The deposits of Agate can be found in countries like Mexico, Brazil, Botswana, Argentina, United States, India, Uruguay, Australia, and Poland.  


Alexandrite

One primary color evolving variant of Chrysoberyl is Alexandrite. The color of the Alexandrite tends to evolve under distinct light conditions. For instance, if you view it under broad daylight, the color changes from greenish blue to dark yellow-green. Further, if you view it under candlelight or incandescent light, the color changes from pink to red. It is a valuable gemstone that is exceptionally rare. Since it is a rare gemstone, it is very difficult to attain. However, very recently, a few new sources of alexandrite were found in Tanzania and Brazil, which made these gemstones more widely available in the mainstream market.  


Features of Alexandrite

  • Alexandrite was christened in the honor of Alexandar Nicholavich. 
  • The color of Alexandrite is fairly unique, and this is primarily because of the impurities of the chromium element present in the gemstone.
  •  The most desirable form of alexandrite is the one that depicts a pure color change. For instance, pure blue or green changes to pure red in the incandescent light.   

Uses of Alexandrite

  • Alexandrite is used as pendant rings and centerpieces
  • It is mostly available in less than 2 carats purity. 


Alexandrite Treatments

Mostly, the alexandrite isn’t enhanced or treated. You can find a synthetic form of the gemstone. However, it is not easy to distinguish the synthetic and natural Alexandrite from one another.  


Sources of Alexandrite

The initial spotting of the Alexandrite happened at the Sanarka River of the Ural Mountains of Russia. However, these Russian deposits have been exhausted long ago, and now it is almost impossible to attain the Alexandrite from Russia. There are a few small deposits that were later found in Ceylon (Sri Lanka). The new deposits of Alexandrite are found in countries like Brazil, Madagascar, and Tanzania. 


Almandine

One of the most popular and common forms of garnet is Almandine. This gem is primarily opaque and is not fit for the gemstone use. However, you can find a little translucent to transparent forms of gemstones that form great gemstones. Almandine is commonly referred to as Almandine Garnet or simply garnet in the gem trade market. 


Features of Almandine

  • It is mainly dark in color. 
  • The color will mostly vary from reddish-brown to dark red. 
  • It is the hardest form of garnet. 
  • The most valuable color of this gemstone is pure deep red.
  • At times, it is hollow in the underside. This is necessary to allow light to enter into the stone. 
  • You can identify the hollowness of the gem by its lighter weight. 

Uses of Almandine

  • Almandine is primarily used in different forms of jewelry, such as pendants, rings, and earrings. 
  • The lower quality of the gem is polished into beads and cabochons and is used in the necklaces and bracelets. 

Almandine Treatments

There is no enhancement done for the Almandine, and the color is mostly natural. 


Sources of Almandine

It is a common gemstone and is found widely across the globe. Some of the countries where you can find this stone include Brazil, China, Sri Lanka, Australia, the US, and Madagascar. 


Amazonite

Amazonite is opaque to translucent and has a greenish appearance. Named after the River Amazon of South America, Amazonite is the green variant of Microcline mineral. As such, there is no Amazonite deposit found in South America’s Amazon river, but it is because of the resemblance in the green color of the rainforest that it gets the name Amazonite. Features of Amazonite

  • Amazonite has an uneven color distribution. 
  • It can be found in forest green, bluish-green, and light green color. 
  • You can also find this gemstone in grayish-green color, but such stones are not used as gemstones. 
  • It is sensitive to pressure and might chip or break easily. 

Uses of Amazonite

  • Amazonite is mainly used in beads. 
  • On polishing, it can be used in carvings and cabochons. 

Amazonite Treatments

It is neither treated nor enhanced. 


Sources of Amazonite

You can find Amazonite all across the globe. However, a major chunk of the gemstone can be found in countries like the United States, India, Brazil, Myanmar, Russia, Madagascar, and Ethiopia. 


Amber

Amber is a gemstone that is formed via the hardened resin acquired from the ancient pine trees. It is an organic stone that has certain inclusions that got stuck in the stone and remained inside it through the hardening process. Mostly these inclusions are of plants or insects, such as mosquitoes. The amber that has these inclusions are mostly expensive.  


Features of Amber

  • It is mostly yellow-orange. 
  • The color of the stone is distinctive, and that’s how it got its name. 
  • You can find amber in a lighter yellow or a deep-orange to red tone. 
  • There is a rare Amber found in the Dominican Republic, which is Blue Color. This unique tinge is mainly because of the fluorescence. 
  • Amber is one of the lightest gemstones and has low specific gravity. 
  •  Though you can find transparent Amber, there are a few forms of it that are cloudy or translucent.
  • The Amber that has a clearer appearance happens to be more valuable than the cloudy versions of the stone. 
  • For a gemstone, Amber is pretty soft and is not very durable.  
  • Amber might burn if exposed to fire or crack if too much pressure or heat is applied. 
  • It should be kept away from chemicals and solutions such as acids, perfumes, solvents, gasoline, or alcohol. 

Uses of Amber

  • Amber can be used in jewelry as beads and cabochons. 
  • Mostly Amber is used in earrings, bracelets, and necklaces. 

Amber Treatments

Amber is usually not treated and is mostly natural. However, there are a few amber stones that are oiled and fused to form a bigger piece. Such stones are called the pressed amber or amberoid. 


Amber Sources

The key deposits of Amber can be found in Russia’s Kaliningrad Oblast in the Baltic Sea. Further, the Dominican Republic, Lithuania, Northern Poland, and Latvia are also two important producers of Amber. In Santiago Province, Blue Amber is found in abundance. Other Amber sources include Canada, Germany, Myanmar, Italy, Mexico, and the US. 


Amethyst

One gemstone that has been incredibly popular since ancient times is the amethyst. Approximately two centuries ago, Amethyst was regarded amongst precious gemstones like Emerald and Ruby. However, in 1800, a massive deposit of Amethyst was found, and that made the gemstone fairly obtainable and inexpensive. 


Features of Amethyst

  • The color varieties of Amethyst range from light to dark purple. In these, the most expensive variant is deep purple. This color mainly exists because of the impurities of iron. 
  • It is a purple variant of Quartz. 
  • With Amethyst, full care must be exercised as it can form curve-shaped fractures if you bang it too hard. 

Uses of Amethyst

  • Amethyst undergoes many cuts and is used in different forms of jewelry, such as pendants, rings, necklaces, bracelets, and earrings. 
  • If you get a lower quality of Amethyst, it can be used as a bead gem or in cabochons. 
  • Purple Amethyst mixed with white Quartz is used in bracelets and necklaces. 

Amethyst Treatment

To convert the light-colored stones into their deeper counterparts, sometimes Amethyst is heat treated. 


Amethyst Sources

The biggest producer of Amethyst is Brazil. Further, it is also found in Uruguay, Minas Gerais, Bahia, Rio Grande do Sul, Argentina, Maraba, Namibia, Madagascar, Bolivia, Canada, Mexico, United States, South Africa, and Zambia. 


Ametrine

Ametrine is a newer gemstone. It is a combination of two gemstones Citrine and Amethyst, hence the name. It is the unique color of this gemstone that has caused its massive popularity.  


Features of Ametrine

  • Every Ametrine comes in a combination of colors and is of a distinct pattern. 
  • This gemstone is fairly affordable. However, the synthetic forms of it are not as popular. 

Uses of Ametrine

  • It is used in jewelry. 
  • Few use the gemstone for ornate cravings, like the animal cravings. 

Ametrine Treatment

Mostly, the gemstone is natural and is not enhanced or treated. However, to create color variations, sometimes the gemstone might by synthesized via the hydrothermal method. 


Sources of Ametrine

It is primarily found near the Brazilian border at the Anahi Mine, which is believed to be the only significant producer of this gem. 


Andalusite

Andalusite is a remarkable gemstone that is famous for its strong pleochroism and fascinating color habits. This is the reason behind the multi-colored shades found in the gemstone. It ranges from reddish-brown to yellow and olive-green in a single stone. The transparent variety of the Andalusite is rare and is more desirable.  

Features of Andalusite

  • The intensity of the color of this stone varies when viewed at different angles. 
  • How Andalusite is cut plays a key role in the color that the stone will display.
  • If a gemstone is a long cut, it will show one color around the center and a distinct color towards the end. 

Uses of Andalusite

  • It is primarily used as a minor gemstone. 

Andalusite Treatment

It is generally not enhanced or treated. 


Andalusite Sources

Andalusite is mostly found in Brazil. Other sources of Andalusite include the US, Australia, Russia, China, Spain, and Portugal. 


Andesine

Andesine is a relatively newer gemstone in the market. Though it first appeared in 2003, the origin of the stone is not known. 


Features of Andesine

  • Andesine has a reddish-pink, red, or an orangish-pink tone. 
  • It’s pretty color adds to the popularity of the stone. 
  • It is a soft gemstone and is prone to cracks.  
  • In different light settings, the stone might display different colors. 

Uses of Andesine

  • It can be used in distinct forms of jewelry. 
  • Sometimes, Andesine is used as a replacement of Spinel or Ruby because of its red color. 

Andesine Treatment

The red color of the stone is produced by subjecting Labradorite to a diffusion treatment using copper. 


Sources of Andesine

As such, there is no certainty on the origin of this stone. It was originally discovered in the state of Congo. 


Andradite

Andradite happens to be the most lustrous form of Garnet that is available in a bunch of varieties. The transparent versions of this stone are more valued and rare. 


Features of Andradite

  • The green variety of Andradite is rare and is certainly more valuable. 
  • There are yellow or orange to yellow varieties of the stone that are mostly found in crystals that are most commonly used in jewelry. 
  • You can find a black opaque variety too that is famously known as the black garnet. 

Uses of Andradite

  • Mostly, the Andradite is used as a gemstone. 
  • It is also used in jewelry. 
  • The black Andradite is used in rings, beads, bracelets, and pendants.

Andradite Treatment

This gemstone is naturally colored and does not undergo any treatment or enhancement. 


Sources of Andradite

Originally, Andradite was found in Russia. However, recently, a massive deposit of the stone was found in Namibia. There are also lesser deposits found in countries like Italy, Madagascar, Iran, and Afghanistan.  


Aquamarine

Aquamarine is a blue-green or a blue variety of Beryl. It varies in color and goes from faint light blue to bluish-green. The lighter versions of the gemstone are fairly more common. You can get rid of the greenish hue of the stone by putting it through heat treatment. 


Features of Aquamarine

  • It is a common gemstone. 
  • The lighter versions of the stone are more affordable, while the deeper colors are fairly expensive. 
  •  It is primarily a durable and hard gem, but if banged hard, it might develop some internal cracks. 
  • The physical properties of Aquamarine and Topaz are fairly similar, but Topaz is less expensive than Aquamarine. 

Uses of Aquamarine

Aquamarine is a popular stone that is used as jewelry in necklaces, rings, earrings, and other forms of jewelry. The perfect and flawless forms of the stone are worn as necklace pendants. A lesser quality of the stone that lacks basic transparency is either used as a rough polished stone in necklace, or bracelets, or is used as beads. 


Aquamarine Treatment

Mostly the Aquamarines are heat treated. 


Aquamarine Sources

The biggest producer of Aquamarine is Brazil. There are a few other producers of Aquamarine that include the United States, Pakistan, Myanmar, China, Russia, Namibia, Kenya, and Mozambique.  


Aventurine

Aventurine contains scales or small flakes that offer it a glistening effect. It is a compact version of Chalcedony or Quartz. Mostly, the color of this stone is green, but you can find it in other color variants, too, such as brown, orange, and gray. However, the color variants other than green are uncommon.   


Features of Aventurine

  • It is a gemstone that ranges from light to dark green color.
  • The stone depicts a glistening or shimmering effect that is known as aventurescence.
  • Mostly, the stone has a sugary or grainy texture in its natural state. However, you can get rid of it by polishing the stone.

  • Uses of Aventurine

    Primarily the stone is used as jewelry, as beads, or as cabochons for bracelets and necklaces. It is a famous aquarium stone that is used for bookends and carvings. 


    Aventurine Treatment

    It is generally used in a natural form and is not treated or enhanced. 


    Aventurine Sources

    Mostly, Aventurine is found in Tanzania, Russia, Brazil, India, and Austria. 


    Benitoite

    Benitoite is a rare and relatively newer gemstone that was discovered for the first time in the year 1907. It comes in a sapphire-blue color and has a good luster or transparency. However, since it is rare and not abundantly available, it can be a bit expensive. 


    Features of Benitoite

    • It is an exquisite and valuable gemstone. 
    • The hardness of the stone is low, and it is thus prone to scratching. 
    • You cannot easily find huge crystals of Benitoite and are mostly preserved as mineral specimens. 

    Uses of Benitoite

    • It is mostly preserved for connoisseurs and collectors. 
    • It isn’t commonly used in jewelry pieces. 

    Benitoite Treatments

    Mostly Benitoite is used in natural form and isn’t enhanced or treated. 


    Benitoite Sources

    You can spot small deposits of Benitoite across the world. However, the only deposit that’s good enough to be used as a gemstone material is found in the Diablo Range in California. Since this deposit isn’t actively producing this stone, it is currently very scarce.


    Beryl

    Beryl is available in abundant varieties that are mostly distinguished by their color. A lot of beryl varieties are important gemstones. Surprisingly, all transparent varieties are used as gemstones. Of these, Aquamarine and Emerald are more popular forms. 


    Features of Beryl

    • Beryl in pure form is mostly colorless. 
    • The impurities in Beryl are the reason behind its diversity. 

    Uses of Beryl

    Aquamarine and Emerald are faceted into gem cuts and are famous jewelry stones. 


    Beryl Treatments

    Stones like Morganite and Aquamarine are heated to intensify the colors, whereas Emeralds are oiled to conceal the flaws. Most other forms of Beryl aren’t enhanced or treated. 


    Beryl Sources

    Depending on the variant of Beryl, its sources vary. 


    Bloodstone

    Bloodstone is a variety of Chalcedony that is mostly available in dark blue-green to dark green color. It is speckled with brown or red spots. This spotting is somehow similar to the bloodstains, and that is how it got its name. These spots are either sparse or simply non-existent. 


    Features of Bloodstone

    • The brown or the red spots on the surface is because of the iron oxide impurities, whereas the green texture is because of the chlorite inside the chalcedony. 
    • The basic color of the stone is green only. 

    Uses of Bloodstone

    • It is cut into beads and cabochons, where it is used either as rings, bracelets, or necklaces. 
    • Sometimes, it is used as a steal stone. It might even be carved into small figures or carvings.  

    Bloodstone Treatments

    Usually, this stone is naturally treated and is not enhanced. 


    Sources of Bloodstone

    The key sources of Bloodstone are China, India, Brazil, Germany, Australia, and Madagascar. 


    Carnelian

    Carnelian is an amber, red, or orange variety of Chalcedony. Mostly, it is a solid color, but at times it might be banded. If it is banded, it is classified as Carnelian and Agate. 


    Features of Carnelian

    • Carnelian is mostly opaque, but still, light can be passed through it when you view it from the sides. 
    • It is mostly available in solid color only. 

    Uses of Carnelian

    • It is mainly a jewelry gemstone, and is polished and cut into cabochons. 
    • Carnelian is used as beads for bracelets and necklaces. 
    • When carved into cameos, you can wear a carnelian as a pendant. 
    • It is even used as an ornamental stone. 
    • You can carve it into an ornamental object or animal carvings. 

    Carnelian Treatment

    Mostly the Carnelian is colored naturally. However, in some cases, it might undergo heat treatment to accentuate its color. 


    Sources of Carnelian

    It is found in Uruguay, India, the United States, and Brazil. 


    Cat’s Eye

    Cat’s Eye is a gemstone that is polished into a cabochon. When the light passes through the width of the stone, it depicts a narrow band. This effect is known as the cat’s eye effect. 


    Features of Cat’s Eye

    • Its intensity is variable and might vary from strong to weak. 
    • The clearer the cat’s eye is, the more valuable it would be. 

    Uses of Cat’s Eye

    It is mostly used in pendants and rings. 


    Cat’s Eye Treatment

    Usually, it is not enhanced or treated. 


    Cat’s Eye Sources

    It is predominantly found in Zimbabwe, India, Brazil, and China. 


    Chalcedony

    It is a variant of Quartz that is microcrystalline and compact. The stone is found in several different patterns, colors, forms, and varieties. 


    Chalcedony Features

    • It is found in almost every type of color and variety. 
    • Some varieties of Chalcedony are multi-colored such as Chrysoprase.
    • As a general belief, the deeper the color, the more desirable it is. 

    Uses of Chalcedony

    • It is polished as cabochons and beads and is used in costume jewelry, bracelets, earrings, or necklaces. 
    • It can also be used as cameos or animal carvings. 

    Chalcedony Treatment

    Sometimes, Chalcedony is dyed to create a few vibrant colors, such as pink, red, or blue. 


    Chalcedony Sources

    Chalcedony is found globally and in abundance. 


    Chrysoberyl

    It is a durable and hard gem. Though it tends to lack the fire of other gemstones, it is still very valuable. Mostly, Chrysoberyl is yellow, but you can find it in orange, green, or brown color too. 


    Features of Chrysoberyl

    • Most of the time, it is a light-colored gemstone. 
    • However, the better the color is, the more valuable it would be. 
    • Usually, these gemstones are free of flaws. 
    • It has a hardness of 8 ½ and is said to be one of the hardest stones. 

    Uses of Chrysoberyl

    The transparent varieties of Chrysoberyl can be used as gemstones. However, despite being valuable and appealing, it is still not commonly used as jewelry. Chrysoberyl jewelry is mostly brownish-yellow, greenish-brown, and yellow. 


    Sources of Chrysoberyl

    The most significant variety of Chrysoberyl is found in Brazil. However, you can also find this stone in countries like Myanmar, Australia, Zimbabwe, Russia, and Madagascar. 


    Chrysocolla

    It is a beautiful gemstone that is available in bluish-green to blue color variant. The chemical structure present in the stone is mainly responsible for its bright and attractive color. 


    Features of Chrysocolla

    • It is primarily solid in color but is mostly found in multi-colored green and blue shades with interesting patterns. 
    • You might spot black or brown specks on it. 

    Uses of Chrysocolla


    It is polished as cabochons and beads and is used in costume jewelry, bracelets, earrings, or necklaces. 


    Chrysocolla Treatment

    Usually, it is not enhanced or treated. 


    Chrysocolla Sources

    Chrysocolla is found globally. However, in countries like the US, Israel, Congo, Peru, Mexico, Australia, and Chile, it is found in abundance. 


    Chrysoprase

    It is a variant of Chalcedony. The stone has a diverse color range, which varies from deep-apple green to light minty green. This unique color texture of the stone is attributed to the nickel impurities found in it. 


    Features of Chrysoprase

    • Its transparency varies from opaque to translucent. 
    • The gemstones that have a universal color consistency are fairly more precious and valuable. 
    • If exposed to prolonged light, the color of the gemstone might fade. 

    Uses of Chrysoprase

    It is mainly used as a gemstone. However, once it is cut into cabochons, it is used as rings or pendants. 


    Chrysoprase Treatment

    Mostly, Chrysoprase is used in its natural form. However, at times, sellers dye the white Chalcedony to give it an appearance of Chrysoprase. 


    Chrysoprase Sources

    You can find deposits of Chrysoprase in countries like India, Australia, Kazakhstan, Tanzania, the United States, Madagascar, and Poland. 


    Citrine

    A slightly yellowish or an orange variant of Quartz is Citrine. It isn’t found very readily and is mostly attained by heat-treating smoky quartz or amethyst. 


    Features of Citrine

    • The deep colored variants of Citrine are fairly more valuable. 
    • It is an affordable gemstone.
    • This gemstone is often confused with Yellow Topaz, which has a similar color and body. 

    Uses of Citrine

    • It is mostly used as a pendant stone. 
    • Sometimes, Citrine is used as a centrepiece for rings. 
    • Other jewelry pieces made with Citrine include necklaces, bracelets, and earrings. 

    Citrine Treatment

    Citrine is not naturally colored, but it is colored with heat treatment. 


    Sources of Citrine

    The biggest producer of the gemstone is Brazil. It is also found in countries like Russia, Spain, Madagascar, Argentina, Zaire, Spain, and Namibia. 


    Copper

    Famously known for its metallic reddish-brown color, copper is neither precious metal nor a gemstone. However, it is included here in this guide, given its historical significance. 


    Features

    • Copper tends to tarnish when exposed to weathering. 

    Uses of Copper

    • Copper is mainly used for plumbing and electrical uses. 
    • It is used in coin mining. 
    • Further, it is used in statues, utensils, and ornaments, and rarely in jewelry. 

    Sources of Copper

    Some of the key copper-producing countries include the US, Chile, Australia, Canada, China, Peru, Indonesia, Zambia, Canada, Kazakhstan, and Poland.  


    Coral 

    Coral is an organic gemstone and is formed via a living organism. Mostly, the coral stone is white, but you can find coral in red and orange colors too. The red variant of the stone is very precious. 


    Features of Coral

    • Coral is naturally dull. So, for a glassy lustre, a bit of polishing is required. 
    • It is mostly brittle and soft, which makes it prone to chipping.  

    Uses of Coral

    • Coral is used in beads and cabochons. 
    • It is sculpted into carvings, and is used as brooches and lapel pins. 
    • Sometimes, it is even used in necklaces. 

    Coral Treatment

    Though Coral is natural, but sometimes it might be dyed to get a deep red color. 


    Sources of Coral

    You can find coral in Italy, Taiwan, Malaysia, and Australia.


    Danburite

    Danburite is mainly colorless and is referred to as the collector’s gemstone. 


    Features of Danburite

    • It gets its name from the city of Danbury. 
    • It facets well and has a good hardness. 

    Uses of Danburite

    Since it is a connoisseur's or a collector’s gemstone, it isn’t used in jewelry. 


    Danburite Treatment

    It is neither enhanced nor treated.


    Sources of Danburite

    You can find Danburite in Bolivia, Mexico, Russia, Madagascar, Burma, and Japan. 


    Diamond

    The most fabled and famed of all the gemstones is Diamond. It is undoubtedly unique in many different ways and is known for its durability, sparkling fire, and rarity. All of this makes Diamond one of the most precious gemstones. 

    Features of Diamond

    • Diamond is mostly colorless, but a few variants of it tend to have a brown, yellow, or a light tint. 
    • Mostly, all the diamonds are opaque. 
    • Diamonds have a certain degree of flaws, sometimes even minute.  
    • The hardness of the diamond adds to its durability and suitability. 
    • Diamonds are difficult to polish because of their hardness. 
    • Diamond is mainly known for its 4 Cs – Color, Cut, Carat Weight, and Clarity.

    Uses of Diamond

    Diamond is used predominantly in jewelry. 


    Diamond Treatment

    To improve the quality of the diamond, they are artificially beautified. Sometimes, laser drilling techniques are also used to remove the brown inclusions.  


    Sources of Diamond

    Diamond is found mainly in Canada, Australia, Congo, Russia, South Africa, Botswana, Namibia, Angola, Ghana, and Guinea. 



    Diaspore


    Diaspore is mainly known for its color-evolving habits. It fluorescent lighting or lighting, it acquires a light olive green to yellowish-green color. However, in candlelight or incandescent light, it looks raspberry-red or pinkish-orange in color. 


    Features of Diaspore

  • The gemstone is visibly flawless and is large. 
    • There is a cat’s eye phenomenon seen on diaspore, but this occurrence is rare. 

    Uses of Diaspore

    Diaspore is mainly used in necklace pendants, earrings, or rings. 


    Diaspore Treatment

    Usually, Diaspore is not enhanced or treated. 


    Sources of Diaspore

    Mainly Diaspore is found in Turkey, Pinarcik, and Mugla. 


    Diopside

    It used to be a collector’s gemstone, but now it has made its way into the trade market. Being a little low on hardness, it is slightly prone to hardness.


    Features of Diopside

  • Diopside occurs in a multitude of colors, and the most common variety of it is green color. 
  • There is a purple color variant known as Violane that is used as a gemstone. 

  • Uses of Diopside

    • It is mostly used in jewelry pieces like pendants and earrings. 
    • Diopside isn’t used for bracelets or rings because of its poor hardness. 
    • Violane and Star Diopside are used mainly as a collector’s gem. 

    Diopside Treatment

    It is used naturally and is not enhanced or treated. 


    Diopside Sources

    Some of the key sources of Diopside include Madagascar, Austria, Italy, Tanzania, Myanmar, Russia, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Finland, Madagascar, the US, and China.  


    Dumortierite

    Dumortierite is rare and a pure gemstone. 


    Features of Dumortierite

    Dumortierite is nothing but Quartz that has Dumortierite inclusions. 


    Uses of Dumortierite

    It is mainly used in lapidary carvings and cabochons.


    Dumortierite Treatment

    Dumortierite is mostly natural and is not enhanced or treated. 


    Dumortierite Sources

    Dumortierite is found in Austria, the US, Brazil, Namibia, Madagascar, and Peru. 


    Emerald

    The green version of Beryl is known as Emerald. It is a valuable and famous gemstone that is known for its beautiful green color. Known for its rarity and durability, it is an expensive gemstone. 


    Features of Emerald

    • Emerald is the most expensive variant of Beryl. 
    • It has a bunch of flaws in it, and the flawless variants of it is uncommon. 
    • The Emeralds with fine green color have lesser flaws.  
    • Despite having a phenomenal hardness, it is a brittle stone. As a result of this, it might develop cracks if banged hard or exposed to massive temperature. 

    Uses of Emerald

    • Emerald is a prominent jewelry gemstone. 
    • It is even used as beads and cabochons.

    Emerald Treatment

    This stone is treated with a synthetic lubricant or oil.  


    Emerald Sources

    You can find Emerald in countries like Austria, Egypt, China, Russia, Brazil, South Africa, Mozambique, Afghanistan, and the US. 


    Fluorite

    Fluorite is an exquisite gemstone that can be found in all colors. It is mostly multicolored and is found in two or more contrasting colors. 


    Features of Fluorite

    • Usually the fluorite is a deeply cut and has a colored stone. 
    • The most popular form of this gemstone is of deep purple or purple color. 
    • It is not very hard and can thus be chipped or broken easily. 

    Uses of Fluorite

    • Mainly, Fluorite is used in jewelry. 
    • It can be used as bracelets, cabochons, ornamental carvings, beads, or goblets. 

    Fluorite Treatment

    It is usually not enhanced or treated. 


    Fluorite Sources

    Fluorite is found worldwide, but the major deposit is found in India, Canada, Mexico, China, Morocco, France, England, Namibia, South Africa, United States, Switzerland, Russia, and Spain.  



    Garnet

    Garnet is not one mineral. It is rather a group of minerals that are closely related to one another. You can find it in a myriad of colors, and it tends to have several different varieties. The most popular Garnet is red. 


    Features of Garnet

    • Some of the most widely used forms of garnet include almandine and pyrope. 
    • The color-changing garnet is also excessively popular. 
    • Sometimes, this stone also depicts asterism. 

    Uses of Garnet

    • Garnet is faceted into jewelry and is used in earrings, rings, bracelets, and necklaces. 
    • Orange and yellow variants of it are used as gemstones. 

    Garnet Treatment

    Usually, garnets are not treated, and they have a natural color. 


    Sources of Garnet

    Depending on the type of garnet needed by you, the location varies. 


    Gold

    No metal is as beautiful or as legendary as Gold. The beauty, rarity, and the enigma have made it a valuable commodity.  


    Features of Gold

    • It is the most ductile and malleable metal. 
    • Gold is incredibly easy to work with. 
    • It stays unaffected by chemicals and never tarnishes. 
    • Pure gold tends to bend easily. 
    • The karat measurement of gold is measured on a scale of 1 to 24. 
    • Common karat measurements are 22 karat, 18 karat, 14 karat, and 10 karat. 

    Uses of Gold

    Gold is used in making jewelry, such as necklaces, rings, earrings, and bracelets. 


    Gold Treatment

    To increase durability, gold is alloyed with other metals. 


    Gold Sources

    The largest producers of gold are China and South Africa. In addition to that, other deposits of gold are found in the US, Canada, Russia, Australia, Papua New Guinea, Brazil, Uzbekistan, Australia, Argentina, Indonesia, Peru, Ghana, Chile, and Mali. 


    Heliodor and Golden Beryl

    Golden Beryl and Heliodor are the two yellowish varieties of Beryl. 


    Features of Heliodor and Golden Beryl

    • Heliodor is the greenish-yellow variant of Beryl. 
    • Golden Beryl is the yellow variant of Beryl. 

    Heliodor and Golden Beryl Uses

    They are used as gemstones and are even polished into cabochons.


    Heliodor and Golden Beryl Treatment

    They are used in their natural colors and are not enhanced or treated. 


    Heliodor and Golden Beryl Sources

    Some of the sources of these gemstones include Namibia, Brazil, Ukraine, Madagascar, and Russia. 


    Goshenite

    Goshenite is a colorless or a white variant of Beryl. 


    Features of Goshenite

    • Goshenite is opaque. 
    • It is not used as a gemstone. 

    Goshenite uses

    It is often used as a collector’s stone and never in jewelry. 


    Goshenite Treatment

    It is neither enhanced nor treated. 


    Goshenite Sources

    Goshenite is found in Namibia, Brazil, Burma, Pakistan, Russia, and China. 


    Grossular

    Grossular is one of the most varied colored garnets. In the pure form, Grossular is mostly colorless. The presence of the color is primarily because of its impurities. 


    Features of Grossular

    • The most commonly used gemstone is the one that is of yellow-green and yellow color. 
    • The most valuable variant of Grossular is Tsavorite. 

    Uses of Grossular

  • Grossular is used in jewelry. 
  • It is polished in cabochons or used as a carving gemstone. 
  • Grossular Treatment

    Mostly Grossular is used in a natural state and are not enhanced or treated. 

    Grossular Treatment

    Grossular is found in Mexico, Italy, Kenya, Mali, Tanzania, Russia, Canada, and the US. 


    Hiddenite

    It is a green variant of Spodumene.


    Features of Hiddenite

    • It is a chromium-rich and green gemstone. 
    • The chromium impurities in this gemstone are the cause of its green color. 
    • Sometimes, it can even be multi-colored with yellowish tones towards the ends. 

    Uses of Hiddenite

    It is a connoisseur gemstone. 


    Hiddenite Treatment

    It is not enhanced or treated. 


    Hiddenite Sources

    Hiddenite is found in Alexander Co., North Carlina. Brazil and Afghanistan also have this stone in abundance. 


    Iolite

    Iolite is a variant of Cordierite. It varies from translucent to transparent. 


    Iolite Features

    • It is usually affordable and durable. 
    • The color of Iolite goes from light to deep blue with a purple tinge. 

    Iolite Uses

    It is used in jewelry in the form of pendants, earrings, or rings. 


    Iolite Treatment

    Iolite is used in natural form and is not treated or enhanced. 


    Iolite Sources

    This gemstone is found in India, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Brazil, and Madagascar.


    Jade

    Jade is an ornamental stone that is green in color. It is also found in other colors like purple, white, and gray. 


    Jade Features


    • Jade is usually mottled or multi-colored. 
    • The light green or the white variant of Jade is more common. 
    • The deeper colored variants are more valuable. 

    Jade Uses

    Jade is mainly polished into beads and cabochons and is used in earrings, bracelets, rings, and necklaces. Buddhas and animal figures have also been carved out of Jade. It is also used in pendant and cameos. 


    Jade Treatment

    Usually, the color of the stone is natural. However, the stones might be dyed to a deeper greenish hue. Further, synthetic lubricants or beeswax might be used to fill the surface pores in Jade. 


    Jade Sources

    Jade is found in China, Burma, the US, Guatemala, Kazakhstan, Russia, and Brazil.


    Jasper

    Jasper is an opaque variant of Chalcedony. It is usually found in red, yellow, or brown color. 


    Features of Jasper

    • Jasper is mostly multi-colored and depicts unique color patterns. 
    • It is often striped, mottled, ringed, or spotted. 

    Jasper Uses

    • Jasper is inexpensive and is used in jewelry. 
    • It is often used as beads for bracelets and necklaces. 
    • Sometimes, Jasper is also carved in cameos and used as pendants. 

    Jasper Treatment

    Jasper is mostly used in natural state, but it is also occasionally dyed. 


    Jasper Sources

    You can find Jasper across the globe. However, the key deposits are found in Russia, India, Egypt, Indonesia, Australia, Kazakhstan, Venezuela, the United States, Brazil, Madagascar, and Uruguay. 


    Kunzite

    Kunzite is a gem variant of Spodumene and varies from pink to light purple color. 


    Kunzite Features

    • Kunzite has a habit of losing its color when exposed to light. 
    • It is a soft stone that is sensitive to knocks. 
    • The deeper the pink color is, the more valuable Kunzite will be. 

    Kunzite Uses

    It is used as a pendant stone or as a decorating stone. Kunzite is also used in jewelry items like necklaces, rings, and bracelets.


    Kunzite Treatment

    It is mostly heat-treated to accentuate its color.

    Kunzite Sources

    The key sources of Kunzite are Mozambique, Brazil, Madagascar, the US, Afghanistan, and Pakistan. 


    Kyanite

    Kyanite is not a mainstream gem, but rather a collector gem. They are not 100% transparent and have a certain grayish tone to it. 


    Features of Kyanite

    • The hardness of Kyanite is different on the vertical and horizontal sides. 
    • It is mostly soft. 

    Kyanite Uses

    • It is used as a blue gemstone.
    • Kyanite is used in pendants and earrings.

    Kyanite Treatment

    It is not enhanced or treated. 


    Kyanite Sources

    Kyanite is found in Burma, Brazil, the U.S, Nepal, Cambodia, and Switzerland. 


    Labradorite

    It is a beautiful feldspar stone that depicts iridescent hues of colors. 

    Labradorite Features

    • Labradorite is sensitive to pressure, so care must be exercised when handling it. 
    • It is mostly flawed with streaks and dark lines. 

    Labradorite Uses

    • It is used as beads and cabochons. 
    • Labradorite is used in bracelets, rings, and necklaces. 

    Labradorite Treatment

    It is not treated or enhanced. 

    Labradorite Sources

    Labradorite is found in Australia, Canada, Madagascar, Finland, and Ukraine. 


    Lapis Lazuli

    Lapis Lazuli is an opaque and deep blue gemstone. It is one of the most crucial opaque stones. 


    Features of Lapis Lazuli

    • The deeper blue color of Lapis Lazuli is more valuable. 
    • It is a sensitive gemstone and can be cracked or chipped easily. 
    • Lapis Lazuli is a soft stone. 

    Lapis Lazuli Uses

    • It is used as beads and cabochons. 
    • Labradorite is used in bracelets, rings, and necklaces.
    • Utensils and ornate carvings are also made out of it.  

    Lapis Lazuli Treatment

    Lapis Lazuli is not usually treated or enhanced. At times, it might be dyed to get a deeper tone. 


    Lapis Lazuli Sources

    It is found in Afghanistan, Chile, and Russia. 


    Larimar

    Larimar is a variant of Pectolite. The sea-blue color of Larimar is exquisite and is found only in the Dominican Republic. 


    Larimar Features

    • It is a tough stone and can withstand faceting and carving. 
    • The color of Larimar is mainly because of the copper inclusion. 
    • It is a soft gemstone that might get scratched easily. 
    • The color of Larimar might fade when exposed to light. 

    Larimar Uses

    It is mainly used as beads and cabochons and can be used in earrings, pendants, rings, and bracelets. 


    Larimar Treatment

    It is usually not treated. There are a few inexpensive variants, which might be dyed to blue to resemble Larimar. 


    Larimar Sources

    It is only found in the Dominican Republic.


    Malachite

    Malachite is an opaque and green gemstone that has a unique appearance. 


    Malachite Features

    • Malachite is inexpensive and easily available. 
    • It is used as a healing stone to keep nightmares away. 
    • The unique color of Malachite makes it popular. 


    Malachite Uses

    • It is used as a bead stone for bracelets and necklaces. 
    • It is also a prominent carving stone. 
    • It is used in pendants. 

    Malachite Treatment

    It is neither enhanced nor treated. 


    Malachite Sources

    Malachite is found in Russia, Congo, Australia, China, Chile, and the United States. 

    Moonstone

    Moonstone is a famous stone of the feldspar group that depicts a unique color play called the adularescence. 

    Moonstone Features

    • Moonstone is found in abundance and is fairly inexpensive. 
    • It depicts a cat’s eye effect. 
    • The more transparent Moonstone is, the more valuable it is said to be. 
    • It is sensitive to pressure and might break easily. 

    Moonstone Uses

    It is an affordable stone that is used as beads and pendants. Sometimes, Moonstone is also sewn into garments as a charm. 


    Moonstone Treatment

    It is neither enhanced nor treated. 


    Moonstone Sources

    Moonstone is found in Brazil, India, Myanmar, Australia, Tanzania, Sri Lanka, and Madagascar. 


    Morganite


    Morganite is a pink or a purplish variant of Beryl. 


    Morganite Features

    • It is the least common variant of Beryl. 
    • Morganite with pink stones and orange tinge is more valuable. 

    Morganite Uses

    It is a pink gemstone that is used as cabochons. 


    Morganite Treatment

    It is sometimes heat-treated to get rid of the yellow tone and improve the color of the stone. 


    Morganite Sources

    It is found in the US, Pakistan, Brazil, Madagascar, and Afghanistan. 


    Onyx

    Onyx is an engraved stone that has a solid color base. It is a traditional black gemstone. 


    Onyx Features

      • It is used in jewelry, as well as an ornamental gemstone for carvings.  
  • Onyx is a prominent cameo or engraving stone. 
  • Onyx Uses

    Onyx is used in rings, earrings, and necklaces. It is also cut and used in beads and cabochons. 


    Onyx Treatment

    Onyx is usually dyed.  


    Onyx Sources

    It is found in India, Brazil, and Uruguay.


    Opal

    Opal is an extremely colorful gemstone that is known for splendid color play. The fine variants of Opal can be sometimes more valuable than Diamond. In Opal, the primary detrimental factor of the value is the distribution and the intensity of the color. 


    Opal Features

    • When Opal depicts a play of colors, it is called the Precious Opal. However, when it lacks the play of colors, it is known as the Common Opal. 
    • The most desired variant of Opal is the Black Opal. 
    • A condition known as crazing might affect Opal and lead to internal cracks in it. 

    Opal Uses

    Opal is polished and cut into cabochons to be used in jewelry, as ring centerpiece, and as pendants. 


    Opal Treatment

    Opal is usually treated with synthetic lubricants to accentuate the stability and luster. It is even soaked in waxes. 


    Opal Sources

    The biggest producer of Opal is Australia. You can also find Opal in Ethiopia, Sudan, Hungary, Honduras, Brazil, Mexico, and the United States.


    Orthoclase

    Orthoclase is a common feldspar that has a pleasant yellow color. 


    Orthoclase Features

    • Some of these gemstones depict a cat’s eye effect. 
    • The purer versions of yellow color are fairly more desirable, while the champagne colored stones are more popular. 

    Orthoclase Uses

    It is used in jewelry such as pins, earrings, and pendants. 


    Orthoclase Treatment

    It is not enhanced or treated. 


    Orthoclase Sources

    It is primarily found in Brazil, Myanmar, and Tanzania.


    Pearls

    Pears are a valuable gemstone. The beauty of the stone is amplified by the mere difficulty borne in acquiring this stone.   


    Pearl Features

    • Pearls occur naturally, but their occurrence is limited. 
    • It is available in a multitude of colors. 

    Pearls Uses

    Pearl is used as a gemstone and is commonly included in necklaces, bracelets, rings, earrings, and pendants. 


    Pearls Treatment

    Mostly all the pearls in the market are cultured. It is even dyed to give it a more valuable color. 


    Pearls Sources

    Pearls are found in the Indian and South Pacific Oceans. It is also found in China, Japan, the Philippines, Indonesia, Burma, the US, Australia, and French Polynesia. 




    Peridot

    Peridot is an excessively popular archaic gemstone. The deep-olive tones of Peridot are more expensive than the yellowish-green or the lighter tones. 


    Peridot Features

    • Today, the Peridot found in the market has lesser flaws and is often of exceptional quality. 
    • The intensity of hue in the stone depends on the degree of iron in it.
    • Peridot can be used as a night and a day stone both.  

    Peridot Uses

    Peridot is used in rings, earrings, necklaces, and bracelets. 


    Peridot Treatment

    It is used naturally and is not enhanced. 


    Peridot Sources

    It is found in Pakistan, Burma, Afghanistan, China, Vietnam, Ethiopia, and the United States. 


    Platinum

    Platinum is a precious metal that has a value higher than that of Gold. The silver-white color of platinum is beautiful and will never tarnish. 

    Features of Platinum

    • Platinum does not get damaged or discolored. 
    • It is tougher than most precious metals. 
    • It is flexible and does not bend easily. 

    Platinum Uses

    Platinum is used in bracelets, high-end rings, earrings, and necklaces. 


    Platinum Treatment

    Platinum is mostly alloyed with other metals, like iridium. This is done to accentuate the durability of Platinum. 


    Platinum Sources

    The biggest source of Platinum is South Africa. It is also found in Russia, Colombia, Canada, and the U.S.


    Prehnite

    It is a light green gemstone with a yellowish tinge and a whitish hue. Prehnite isn’t fully transparent. It is mostly cloudy or velvety in texture.  


    Prehnite Features

    • It is a collector’s gemstone. 
    • Cat’s eye effect is seen in Prehnite, but it is rare. 

    Prehnite Uses

    • It is an inexpensive stone that lacks transparency, but it is used in beads and cabochons. 
    • It is even used in ornamental objects.

    Prehnite Treatment

    Prehnite is used naturally and is not heated or enhanced. 


    Prehnite Sources

    Prehnite is found in Mali, South Africa, Namibia, Australia, China, and the U.S.  


    Pyrite

    Pyrite is known as the fools Gold because of its golden metallic color. 


    Pyrite Features

    • It is found in massive crystals. 
    • Pyrite is often unstable and fragile. It makes it unsuitable for use as a gemstone.

    Pyrite Uses

    • Pyrite is used as inexpensive beads and as costume jewelry. 
    • It is even carved into cabochons, edge stones, and small roses. 
    • Sometimes, it is used as a base for ornamental figures. 

    Pyrite Treatment


    It is used in its natural form. 


    Pyrite Sources

    It is found worldwide, but Peru has the most extensive deposits of Pyrite. 



    Pyrope

    It is one of the most prominent forms of garnet. It is distinctly attractive because of its blood-red color. 


    Pyrope Features

    • Usually, Pyrope is clean and is free from all inclusions and flaws. 
    • They are transparent and tend to have a lighter color. 

    Pyrope Uses

    Pyrope is cut into garnet and is used as jewelry in pendants, rings, and earrings. On polishing, into beads and cabochons it is used in necklaces and bracelets. 


    Pyrope 

    They are used naturally. 


    Pyrope Sources

    It is found in the Czech Republic, Mozambique, Tanzania, Kenya, South Africa, India, Sri Lanka, China, and the U.S.


    Quartz

    Quartz is varied and the most common mineral on earth. It is available in a multitude of colors and is responsible for the production of several gemstones. 


    Quartz Features

    • The pure Quartz is called the Rock Crystal and is colorless. 
    • The impurities in the Quartz are responsible for it being colorless. 

    Quartz Uses

    • Quartz is affordable and is a widely used gemstone. 
    • It is used in jewelry, such as costume jewelry, necklaces, and bracelets. 
    • Rock Crystal is often worn as a pendant. 

    Quartz Treatment

    The Quartz is heat-treated to deepen its color. 


    Quartz Sources

    Quartz is found in several localities around the world. Some of the notable deposits are found in Brazil, Madagascar, India, and the U.S.


    Rhodochrosite

    Rhodochrosite has a red or natural pink texture. It varies from translucent to opaque and is collected by gemstone connoisseurs. 


    Rhodochrosite Features

    • It is not durable because of its softness and might scratch easily. 
    •  Care must be exercised in preserving the gemstone. 


    Rhodochrosite Uses

    It is used as beads in necklaces and bracelets. Rhodochrosite might even be polished into cabochons. 

    Rhodochrosite Treatment

    It is used in the natural form. 


    Rhodochrosite Sources

    It is found in Argentina, China, Peru, Japan, and South Africa.  


    Rhodolite

    Rhodolite is a rose-red garnet that is said to be a variant of Pyrope. 


    Rhodolite Features

    • It is a standard gemstone used for jewelry. 
    • The gemstone has an attractive color without any inclusion and flaws. 

    Rhodolite Uses

    • It is used in different types of jewelry, such as rings, earrings, and pendants. 
    • Rhodolite is polished into cabochons and beads

    Rhodolite Treatment

    Rhodolite is mostly used in the natural form. 

    Rhodolite Sources

    It is found in Tanzania, Mozambique, Sri Lanka, Brazil, and the US.


    Rhodonite

    It is a pink gemstone that is not very costly. Often it has the black manganese impurities in it. 


    Rhodonite Features

    • It is opaque, mostly. 
    • There is a rare form of Rhodonite available, which is transparent and is very expensive. 

    Rhodonite Uses

    • It is used in necklaces, bracelets, and pendants. 
    • Rhodonite is polished into cabochons and beads. 
    • It is also used as a gemstone.

    Rhodonite Treatment

    It is used naturally, but at times it might be waxed to accentuate its luster. 


    Rhodolite Sources

    It is found in Russia, Australia, Japan, Madagascar, Sweden, Brazil, the US, and Peru


    Rose Quartz

    It is a soft, rosy pink variant of Quartz. 


    Rose Quartz Features

    • It is an affordable stone. 
    • It has many flaws and has a hazy hue. 
    • The deeper pink version is more valuable and less common. 

    Rose Quartz Uses

    It is a pink gemstone that is sometimes cut as hearts or cabochons and used in bracelets, necklaces, costume jewelry, and necklaces. 


    Rose Quartz Treatment

    It is used naturally. 

    Rose Quartz Sources

    It is found in Brazil, Madagascar, South Africa, Mozambique, India, and the United States.


    Ruby

    Ruby is a distinguished gemstone that is known for its rarity, durability, and luster. 


    Ruby Features

    • The color of Ruby varies from bright red to dark brown. 
    • The most preferred color of Ruby is deep red with a bluish tone. 
    • Heat treating a ruby helps get rid of the flaws. 


    Ruby Uses

    • Ruby is a popular gemstone that is used in jewelry pieces, such as earrings, rings, bracelets, and necklaces. 
    • It is even used as a centrepiece for rings and pendants. 
    • Large Ruby is valuable and extremely rare. 

    Ruby Treatment

    Ruby undergoes heat treatment to improve its color. There is also a practice to fracture-fill the rubies and conceal the flaws.  


    Ruby Sources

    Ruby is found in Thailand, Madagascar, Sri Lanka, India, Cambodia, Vietnam, Tanzania, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Australia, the US, and Mozambique, 


    Rutilated Quartz

    It is transparent quartz that has golden yellow inclusions. 


    Rutilated Quartz Features

    • Rutilated Quartz is colorless but does exist in smoky or brown textures.
    • It is extremely desirable because of its inclusions. 

    Rutilated Quartz Uses

    It is cut into beads and cabochons. 

    Rutilated Quartz Treatment

    Rutilated Quartz is used in natural form. 

    Rutilated Quartz Sources

    It is found in Brazil and India. 


    Sapphire

    Sapphire is a valuable and precious blue colored gemstone. It is known for its luster, color, hardness, and durability. 


    Sapphire Features

    • One of the most valuable colors of Sapphire is the cornflower blue color. 
    • Some sapphires depict a blue color when viewed from one side and purple from another end. 

    Sapphire Uses

    • Sapphires is a popular gemstone and is used in jewelry, such as bracelets, necklaces, rings, and earrings. 
    • It is used as a secondary stone to complement other gemstones like Diamond. 
    • Star Sapphire that is polished as cabochons is very pricey. 

    Sapphire Treatment

    Sapphire is mostly heat-treated to accentuate the color. Diffusion treatment is also done to artificially alter the color of the stone.  


    Sapphire Sources

    The key sources of Sapphire include Lanka, Burma (Myanmar), Thailand, Cambodia, Madagascar, Tanzania, Australia, India, and the U.S. 


    Scapolite

    It is an opaque mineral that is available in lovely colors. 


    Scapolite Features

    • A few habits of Scapolite are used as gemstones. 
    • Primarily, the color of Scapolite is yellow, followed by purple. It is also available in other colors like brown, colorless, or pink. 
    • Scapolite depicts a phenomenal cat’s eye effect. 

    Scapolite Uses

    It is a collector and a hobbyist gemstone that is cut into cabochons. 

    Scapolite Treatment

    It is not treated and is used naturally. However, sometimes heat -treatment is conducted to make Scapolite pink. 


    Scapolite Sources

    Scapolite is found in Tanzania, Madagascar, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, India, China, Burma, Brazil, and Canada.


    Silver

    Silver is a precious metal that has been an active gemstone throughout our history. It is primarily because of its value and importance. 


    Features of Silver

    • Silver is easy to work with. 
    • It is ductile and malleable. 
    • Since it is not resistant to pressure, and it tends to bend easily. 
    • To increase the durability of silver, it is alloyed with other metals. 
    • Silver tends to tarnish easily when exposed to moisture or air. 

    Silver Uses

    • Silver is used in jewelry as bracelets, anklets, necklaces, rings, etc. 
    • It is also used as candelabras, Goblets, dishes, cutlery, and trays. 
    • Silver also found a use in coins during ancient times.  

    Silver Treatment

    Silver is alloyed with metals to increase durability. 


    Silver Sources

    Silver is found in Peru, Mexico, China, Australia, Chile, Poland, Russia, the US, and Canada. 


    Smoky Quartz

    Smoky Quartz has a smoky brown color, and its color varies from deep black to grayish brown. It is sometimes opaque, but mostly translucent or transparent.  


    Smoky Quartz Features

    • It is affordable and lacks flaws. 
    • It is common and is used in making jewelry. 

    Smoky Quartz Uses

    • It is used in pendants and ring centerpieces. 
    • Sometimes, it is tumbled into beads or cut as cabochons. 
    • It is also used as carvings.

    Smoky Quartz Treatment

    A lot of times, it is naturally colored, but there are a few varieties of it that are darker and are exposed to irradiation. 


    Smoky Quartz Sources

    It is found all around the world, but the key deposits are found in Brazil, Madagascar, Mozambique, Australia, Switzerland, Scotland, and the United States.


    Sodalite

    Sodalite is a blue gemstone that has markings or streaks on its surface. It is famous for its intense blue color. 


    Sodalite Features

    • It is not a very commonly used gemstone and is easily obtainable and inexpensive. 
    • Sodalite is a lot similar to Lapis Lazuli. 

     

    Sodalite Uses

    • It is used as beads in bracelets and necklaces. 
    • It is used as ornamental carvings. 

    Sodalite Treatment

    It is not treated. 

    Sodalite Sources

    Sodalite is found in Afghanistan, Australia, Brazil, and Canada. 


    Spessartite 

    Spessartite is a composite name for a couple of closely related minerals. 


    Spessartite Features

    • Spessartite contains iron impurities, and that results in its orange color.  
    • Pure orange variant of Spessartite is not common, and most stones have yellow, brown, or red tints.  


    Spessartite Uses

    • The orange-red variant is prominently used as a gemstone. 
    • It is used in pendants and rings. 
    • When cut and polished into cabochons, it is used in rings and bracelets. 



    Spessartite Treatment

    Spessartite is mostly used in natural form and is not treated or enhanced. 


    Spessartite Sources

    The key sources of Spessartite are Tanzania, Kenya, Nigeria, Namibia, Mozambique, Pakistan, Afghanistan, China, Brazil, and the U.S. 


    Sphene

    Sphene is a variant of mineral Titanite. It is low on hardness and might bend or break easily. 


    Sphene Features

    • You can find Sphene in a multitude of colors, and the most prevalent color is orange-brown or yellowish-green. 
    • Sphene has some flaws and inclusions. 
    • Pure Sphene is uncommon and highly valuable. 

    Sphene Uses

    • It is mainly owned by collectors. 
    • Sphene is used mainly in pendants and earrings. 

    Sphene Treatment

    Most of the times, Sphene is used in natural forms, but to get the color orange or red, it might undergo heat treatment. 

    Sphene Sources

    Sphene is found in Austria, Brazil, Pakistan, Namibia, Madagascar, Russia, and Sri Lanka.


    Spinel

    Spinel looks similar to Ruby and is still valued a lot lesser than it. 


    Spinel Features

    • It is easy to synthesize Spinel by adding impurities to it. 
    • The colorless Spinel is mostly synthetic. 
    • Spinel occurs in a multitude of colors. 

    Spinel Uses

    • The deep-red variant of Spinel is valuable and a good replacement for Ruby. 
    • Black Spinel is used as a gemstone. 
    • The crystals of Spinel are worn as jewelry. 

    Spinel Treatment

    It is used in the natural form. 

    Spinel Sources

    The key sources of Spinel include Burma, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, Vietnam, Thailand, Tadjikistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Tanzania, and Madagascar. 


    Spodumene

    Spodumene is a mineral that is composed of two gems – green Hiddenite and pink Kunzite. 


    Spodumene Features

    • Mostly, the Spodumene is yellow, brown, or colorless.
    • The multi-colored and the bluish-green variant of Spodumene is rare. 
    • This gemstone is extremely sensitive and chips or breaks if hit too hard. 

    Spodumene Uses

    • Except Hiddenite and Kunzite, the other colors of Spodumene are not used as gemstones. 
    • Yellow variant is extremely popular and is used as a gemstone. 

    Spodumene Treatment

    Spodumene undergoes heat treatment for the removal of brown tints and to improve transparency. 

    Spodumene Sources

    The key sources of Spodumene are Afghanistan, Pakistan, Brazil, Madagascar, Mozambique, and the US. 


    Sunstone

    Sunstone is a shiny gemstone that belongs to the feldspar group. It is mainly red or orange. 


    Sunstone Features

    • Sunstone’s glitter effect is mainly on golden yellow, red, or orange stone. 
    • Sunstone might also be blue or green, but that is rare. 
    • Sometimes, Sunstone depicts a cat’s eye effect. 

    Sunstone Uses

    • It is polished into beads or cut into cabochons. 
    • It is used in ornamental objects, bracelets, and necklaces. 
    • Sunstone is also used in rings, earrings, and bracelets. 

    Sunstone treatment

    It is used naturally. 

    Sunstone Sources

    It is found in India, Norway, Russia, Madagascar, and the United States.


    Tanzanite

    Tanzanite is a gemstone that is available in violet or blue color. It is today a mainstream gemstone and is phenomenally popular. 


    Tanzanite Features

    • Tanzanite is mainly admired for its color. 
    • Care should be exercised when handling Tanzanite because it is extremely soft. 
    • Tanzanite is not very durable.  

    Tanzanite Uses

    • Tanzanite is used in jewelry items like bracelets, necklaces, and earrings.
    • The lesser quality variants of Tanzanite are cut into cabochons. 

    Tanzanite

    Tanzanite is heat-treated to produce better color. 

    Tanzanite Sources

    Tanzanite is found in Merelani Hills, Arusha, and Tanzania. 


    Thulite

    Thulite is a mineral variant of Zoisite. It is an opaque stone and is available in red to pink colors. 

    Thulite Features

  • Thulite’s pink color is because of the presence of manganese. 
  • Thulite is very similar to Clinothulite. 

  • Thulite Uses

    Thulite is affordable and is used as beads in ornamental objects. 

    Thulite Treatment

    Thulite is used naturally. 


    Thulite Sources

    Thulite is found in Norway, the US, Leksvik in Sorlandet, and Aust-Auger. 


    Tiger's Eye

    One of the most popular but affordable gemstones is Tiger's Eye. 


    Tiger's Eye Features

    • The Tiger's Eye composition involves the inclusion of dense and fine fibers. 
    • Cat’s eye effect is seen in the Tiger's Eye. 

    Tiger's Eye Uses

    Tiger's Eye is used in bracelets and necklaces. It is also used for costume jewelry, floral pins, and ornate carvings. 


    Tiger's Eye Treatment

    Mostly Tiger's Eye is not treated. However, sometimes Tiger's Eye might be dyed to get a red or maroon texture. 


    Tiger's Eye Sources

    Tiger's Eye is found in South Africa, Namibia, Australia, India, and Thailand.


    Topaz

    Topaz is an ideal gem. It is hard and is available in a plethora of colors. 


    Topaz Features

    • Topaz is affordable and very common. 
    • It is found in flawless crystals. 
    • This is a durable and hard gemstone. 
    • Since it doesn’t have a proper cleavage, it can break or chip easily. 

    Topaz Uses

    • Topaz is used in rings, earrings, necklaces, pendants, and bracelets. 
    • It is even used as a gemstone. 
    • Topaz is prominent as an inexpensive variant of Diamond. 

    Topaz Treatment

    Topaz is irradiated to give it a blue color. It even undergoes heat-treatment to stabilize the color. Sometimes, Topaz is synthetically treated to give it a multi-colored effect. 


    Topaz Sources

    The biggest producer of Topaz is Brazil. In addition to this, Topaz is found in Pakistan, Afghanistan, India, China, Burma, Australia, Madagascar, Namibia, Nigeria, Zimbabwe, Mexico, and the U.S.


    Tourmaline

    One of the most colorful gemstones, Tourmaline is found in a multitude of colors like red, pink, green, blue, and multi-colors. 


    Tourmaline Features

    • Tourmaline’s value is variable. The common variants are inexpensive, while the exotic colors are fairly costly. 
    • The neon-blue color of Tourmaline is the most valuable. 
    • Tourmaline’s multi-colored gemstone is known for its uniqueness and beauty. 

    Tourmalines Uses

    • It is used for jewelry in bracelets, rings, and earrings. 
    • Tourmaline is also used as a pendant stone.
    • It is also polished into beads and is used in necklaces and bracelets. 
    • This stone is also cut into cabochons.
    • It is also as an ornamental carving.  


    Tourmalines Treatment

    Tourmalines undergo heat-treatment to accentuate the color of the stone. 


    Tourmalines Sources

    Tourmalines is found in Afghanistan, Pakistan, Russia, Burma, the United States Sri Lanka, Madagascar, Namibia, Mozambique, Tanzania, Nigeria, and Malawi. 


    Tsavorite

    Tsavorite is an emerald-green gemstone that is one of the most expensive and popular garnets. 


    Tsavorite Features

    • Tsavorite’s color is fairly similar to Emerald. 
    • It tends to be flawless and depicts only fewer inclusions. 
    • The best color of the gemstone is deep emerald green. 

    Tsavorite Uses

    It is used in making rings, earrings, and pendants. 


    Tsavorite Treatment

    It is used in the natural form. 


    Tsavorite Sources

    Tsavorite is found in Kenya, Merelani Hills, Arusha Region, and Tanzania. 


    Turquoise

    Turquoise is an archaic gemstone that is an opaque gemstone. It is famous for its turquoise-blue color. 


    Turquoise Features

    • You can find Turquoise in green or blue shades. 
    • Blue hues are more desirable than the greener varieties. 
    • Turquoise is soft and is thus prone to scratching. 

    Turquoise Uses

    • It is a famous bead gemstone and is used in making necklaces and bracelets. 
    • Turquoise is used in making rings and pendants. 
    • It is also used as Cameos and Scarabs.
    • Ornate carvings are also made with Turquoise. 

    Turquoise Treatment

    Turquoise is treated with wax or oil to improve its shine and color. Dyeing is also used in Turquoise. 

    Turquoise Sources

    Turquoise is found in Iran, Israel, Egypt, Afghanistan, China, Australia, Chile, Mexico, and the American Southwest. 


    Uvarovite

    It is one of the rarest garnets that are familiar. 


    Uvarovite Features

    • The transparent Uvarovite is rare and mainly faceted for the collectors. 
    • It is rarely used as a gem. 
    • It is available in deep-chrome color. 

    Uvarovite Uses

    It is used in rings and pendants. 

    Uvarovite Treatment

    It is used naturally. 

    Uvarovite Sources

    Uvarovite is found in Russia, Finland, Turkey, Italy, and the U.S.


    Variscite

    Variscite is a collector’s gemstone, which is opaque. It is usually available in minty-green color. 

    Variscite Features

    • The distinctive color habits of the gem make it appealing. 
    • It is not very common and is extremely soft. 
    • Due care should be exercised to prevent scratching. 

    Variscite Uses

    • It is used in ornate carvings and beads. 
    • It is cut into cabochons and used as pendants. 

    Variscite Treatment

    It is used naturally. 

    Variscite Sources

    Variscite is found in Fairfield and Utah. 



    Zircon

    Zircon is a beautiful gemstone that is available in a multitude of colors. It is a cheap replacement for the diamond but is still a very valuable gem. 


    Zircon Features

    • It has a beautiful sheen. 
    • Zircon is available in a variety of colors and is pretty hard. 
    • If banged hard, they can chip or break. 

    Zircon Uses

    • It is used as a gemstone
    • Blue Zircon is the most popular variant. 
    • It is used as a cheap alternative to a diamond. 

    Zircon Treatment

    Zircon undergoes heat-treatment to improve color and transparency. 


    Zircon Sources

    Zircon is found in Cambodia, Burma, Sri Lanka, Australia, Tanzania, Mozambique, Madagascar, Nigeria, Pakistan, and Afghanistan.

    Zoisite

    Zoisite has a couple of gem varieties. One of the most famous varieties of Zoisite is its blue gemstone.  


    Zoisite Feature

    • Tanzanite is one of the most popular and significant types of Zoisite. 
    • The red or the pink variety, Thulite, is also traded. 

    Zoisite Uses

  • Tanzanite is used as a common jewelry stone. 
  • Zoisite is used in animal carvings. 
  • Thulite is used in beads. 
  • Ruby Zoisite and Green Zoisite are also used as beads and cabochons.

  • Zoisite Treatment

    Except for Tanzanite, which is heat-treated to get the blue color, all the other varieties of Zoisite are used naturally. 


    Zoisite Sources

    Zoisite is found in Tanzania, Norway, Australia, and the U.S. 

    Birthstone jewelery collections:

    Shop by Stone

    Birthstone Jewellery :  


    January Garnet Jewellery  February Amethyst Jewellery  March: Aquamarine Jewellery 

    April: Cubic Zirconia Jewellery May: Emerald Jewellery June:  Pearl Jewellery

    July: Ruby Jewellery  August: Peridot Jewellery 

    September: Sapphire Jewellery  October Opal Jewellery November: Topaz Jewellery 

    December : , Tanzanite Jewellery  and Turquoise Jewelry